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Georgia History Timeline / Chronology 1831
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March 1, 1831 Georgia enacts a law requiring all white males who reside in the Cherokee Nation to swear an oath of allegiance
March 5, 1831 Supreme Court hears the case of The Cherokee Nation vs. The State of Georgia, the Cherokee's first attempt to ensure sovereign rule over their nation.
March 12, 1831 Without warrants the Georgia Guard "arrests" a number of whites working in the Cherokee Nation. They are released from custody because they are licensed and acting as agents of the United States.
March 12, 1831 Arguing before the Supreme Court, lawyer William Wirt makes his case against the state of Georgia for extending its laws over the Cherokee Nation.
May 16, 1831 Governor Gilmer advises Samuel Worcester that the Georgia law requiring white men to take an oath of allegiance to state applies to everybody. In the same letter Gilmer advises Worcester that he has been relieved from his job as postmaster.
  George Gilmer
July 4, 1831 James Monroe died, New York City, New York
July 7, 1831 Under orders from governor George Gilmer, Georgia Guard arrests Samuel Worcester and takes him to Camp Gilmer
  George Gilmer
July 8, 1831 John Stith Pemberton born, Knoxville, GA. His middle name is sometimes misspelled as Styth.
  Crawford County, Georgia
  John Stith (Styth) Pemberton
July 18, 1831 Chief Justice Marshall hands down the verdict in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, ruling that the nation does not have standing to sue because it is not technically a nation
July 26, 1831 In his Fort Hill Address: On the Relation which the States and General Bear to Each Other, John Calhoun iterates the doctrine of nullification.
  John C. Calhoun
September 5, 1831 Trial begins in Gwinnett County before Augustin Smith Clayton for missionaries, including Samuel Worcester, who had violated a Georgia law prohibiting white from working in the Cherokee Nation. This case would go to the Supreme Court as Worcester vs. the State of Georgia
  Gwinnett County, Georgia
  Augustin Smith Clayton
September 15, 1831 Eleven white missionaries are found guilty in Lawrenceville, Georgia for violating Georgia law requiring an oath of allegiance from all white men working in the Cherokee Nation. This case would go to the Supreme Court.
  Augustin Smith Clayton
October 3, 1831 Georgia's gubernatorial election of 1831 pitted George Gilmer against Wilson Lumpkin. The major difference between the two was Lumpkin promised Georgia Cherokee gold and Cherokee land while Gilmer had a "reserve" plan to hold the gold mines and no plan to take the Cherokee land. Lumpkin easily won the election
  George Gilmer
November 9, 1831 Wilson Lumpkin begins term as governor of Georgia
  Governors of Georgia, 1801-1900
November 30, 1831 A white man tries to murder John Ross, leader of the Cherokee Nation
December 24, 1831 Georgia Gold Lottery enacted. This lottery, whose enabling act and drawing dates were different than the Sixth Georgia Land Lottery is, for some reason, frequently combined with the earlier lottery. It is, in fact, totally separate
  Cobb County, Georgia
  Georgia Land Lotteries
  Lumpkin County, Georgia
  Cherokee County, Georgia
December 26, 1831 The original Cherokee County created
  Lumpkin County, Georgia
  Gilmer County, Georgia
  Floyd County, Georgia
  Forsyth County, Georgia
  Bartow County, Georgia
  Cass County, Georgia
  Cobb County, Georgia
  Cherokee County, Georgia
  Original Cherokee County
  Forsyth County, Georgia
December 26, 1831 Sumter County created
  Creation of Georgia Counties
  Sumter County, Georgia
December 29, 1831 The Cherokee Nation officially protests the actions of the state of Georgia to Secretary of War Lewis Cass
  Lewis Cass
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